Friday, December 13, 2013

Al-Azhar Mosque and Islamic in Egypt

The mosque, Egypt, The al -Azhar, Cairo mosque, al -Azhar mosque
Al-Azhar Mosque is a mosque in Islamic Cairo in Egypt. Al-Muizz li-Dīn Allah of the Fatimid Caliphate commissioned its construction for the newly established capital city in 970. This name is relative to the Fatima Al-Zahra daughter of the Prophet Mohammed,  It is the first mosque  is established in Egypt.
The al -Azhar departure
When Jawhar al - Siqilli planned for the construction of al -Qahira , he drew plans to build a large new mosque to be the center of prayers for his master al - Mu'iz Maghrebite and his disciples . This mosque was first known as Jami 'al- Qahira (Cairo mosque ) . There was a minaret and took up half the space occupied by the current al- Azhar mosque .

Name, Jami 'al- Qahira , remained for most of the Fatimid rule of Egypt. We do not know when the name was changed to al -Azhar and even historians differ in the cause to call al -Azhar . While some historians attribute the name of the memory of Fatima al - Zahra  the daughter of the Prophet ), others state that the mosque was built in the middle of a number of palaces known as Zahira Azhar and the name was derived from the name - the name al- Qusur al .
Since its creation al -Azhar mosque in which was the main Friday prayers were made, and the inhabitants of the neighboring towns , Misr ( al - Askar and Al- Fustat combined) et al - Qatai " were pouring every Friday at al -Qahira to attend Friday prayers and listen to the Khutba ( the ritual prayers addressed before mass ) of the Fatimid Caliph .
The shape of the Adhan (the call to prayer ) and Khutba al- Azhar during the Fatimid era , followed the Shiite model. The mosque has remained the official mosque of the Fatimid state for forty years, until the construction of Jami 'al- Hakim ( al- Hakim mosque ) during the reign of the Fatimid caliph al - Hakim bi Amr Allah.
Azharite researchers during the Fatimid period
Al- Azhar university
As soon as the al -Azhar was built , al - Mu'iz instructed his friend Ali ibn al - Nu'man make Halaqa (a circle tutoring ) for the teaching of Ismaili Shia jurisprudence - . Ali ibn al - Nu'man belonged to a family Maghrebite followed the same beliefs of their Fatimid masters. His father wrote a book in the Ismaili jurisprudence known as al - Ikhtisar . It was this book that started the Azharite mosque. The first took place in Halaqa 975 .

Halaqa This was followed by others, who were led by the brothers Ali ibn al - Nu'man . So al- Nu'man family formed the intellectual elite and the Fatimids became the first teacher of al -Azhar . Halaqas the al -Azhar were accompanied by others who were present in Egypt before the Fatimid rule. These include halaqas in the mosques of Amr ibn al-As ibn Tulun and - .
Although the al - Nu'man took care of teaching the Ismaili Shia jurisprudence - at al-Azhar , some prominent taught in al- Azhar in Fatimid times especially when the core teachings of the Ismailis were transferred to Dar al - Hikma .

In the year 998 , al -Azhar proposes a new step to becoming an Islamic university . The Fatimid caliph al- `Aziz Billah approved a proposal of the Minister of confidence Jacob ibn Kils Azharite organize the training. He proposed to allocate a certain number of regular teachers in the education process at al-Azhar . Future teachers should be educated by Ibn Kils personally and this system should be the nucleous of Azharite academic training. In addition, these teachers follow an organized program and they receive regular payments Fatimid government.
the mosque is a palimpsest of all styles and influences that have passed through Egypt, with much of it having been renovated by Abderrahmane Khesheda . There are five very fine minarets with small balconies and intricately carved columns. It has six entrances, with the main entrance being the century of Bab el- Muzayini 18 ( door beard) , where students were once shaved . This door leads into a small courtyard, then into the Aqbaughawiya Medersa to the left , which was built in 1340 and serves as a library. On the right is the Taybarsiya Medersa built in 1310 which has a beautiful mihrab . The entrance Quaitbay was built in 1469 and built a minaret on top . Inside, a large courtyard which is 275 by 112 feet , which is surrounded by porticos supported by over three hundred columns of marble of ancient origin . To the east, the prayer hall which is larger than the courtyard and has several rows of columns. The Kufic inscription inside the mihrab is original, although the mihrab has been modified several times.
Today, al-Azhar remains a deeply influential institution in Egyptian society and a symbol of Islamic Egypt.

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