Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Shajar al-Durr the strongest woman in Egypt

tomb near the Tulun Mosque, Shajaral-Durr,  ruling Egypt, attack against Egypt, Egypt,
Shajaral-Durr the Royal name is Fatma al-Malikah ad-Din Umm-Khalil Shajar al-Durr was the widow of the Ayyubid Sultan As-Salih Ayyub who played a crucial role after his death during the Seventh Crusade against Egypt (1249–1250).
 Muslim historians and chronicler said She was from the Mamluk time and she as  Turkic origin. She became the Sultana of Egypt on May 2, 1250, marking the end of the Ayyubid reign and the starting of the Mamluk time.

Shajar al-Durr was  described by historians as a beautiful, pious and intelligent egyptian woman. She was purchased as a bondmaid by As-Salih Ayyub in the Levant before he became a Sultan and accompanied him with his Mamluk Baibars at Al Karak during his detention there in 1239.
When he became a Sultan in 1240 she went with him to Egypt and gave birth to their son Khalil who was called al-Malik al-Mansour. Some time after the birth, As-Salih Ayyub married her.
In April 1249, Salih Ayyub returned to Egypt a sick as in Syria, and went to Ashmum-Tanah, near Damietta after he heard that King Louis IX of France had assembled a crusader army in Cyprus and was about to launch an attack against Egypt.

On November 22, 1249 , Al Mansurah where he diedafter ruling Egypt for nearly 10 years,Emir Fakhr ad-Din Yussuf Ben Shaykh informed Shajar al-Durr that  the Sultan's death news, but as the country was under attack by the crusaders so they decided to disapear  his death.
The coffined body of the Sultan was transported in secret by boat to the castle on al-Rudah island in the Nile.
She sent  Faris ad-Din Aktai was sent to Hasankeyf to call al-Muazzam Turanshah, the son of the deceased Sultan. They succeeded in convincing the people and the other government officials that the Sultan was only ill rather than dead.

After the assassination of Turanshah the Mamluks and Emirs met at Sultanic Dihliz  and decided to install Shajar al- Durr as the new monarch with Izz al- Din Aybak as Atabeg ( commander ) . Shajar al- Durr was informed at the Citadel Mountain in Cairo and she agreed.
 Shajar al- Durr took the royal name " al- Malikah Ismat ad-Din Umm al- Khalil Shajar Durr " with some additional titles such as " Malikat al- Muslimin (Queen of the Muslims and EGYPT and " Walidat al - Malik al- Mansur
 The Syrian emirs in Damascus gave the city of An- Nasir Yusuf Ayyubid emir of Aleppo and the Mamluks in Cairo responded by stopping the emirs who were faithful to Ayubbids Egypt.
The  Mamluks have decided to install Izz al- Din Aybak as the new sultan. He married Shajar al- Durr who abdicated and spent the throne after him as Sultana ruled Egypt for about three months .  Although the period of the reign of al- Durr Shajar as a monarch was short , he had two important events in history : one , the expulsion of Louis IX of Egypt , which marked the end of the ambition of the Crusaders to conquer the southern Mediterranean , and two , the death of the Ayyubid dynasty and the birth of the Mamluk state which dominated the southern Mediterranean for decades.

In 1257 the conflict and mistrust became a part of the relationship between Aybak , a sultan who was in search of security and supremacy , and his wife Shajar al- Durr , former Sultana who had a strong desire and run a country on the brink of collapse in a foreign invasion . Shajar al- Durr wanted only rule of Egypt. She hid business Sultanate Aybak 's , . It also prevented him to see his other wife and insisted that he should divorce her  Instead , Aybak , who needed to form an alliance with a strong Emir could help against the threat of the Mamluks who fled to Syria ,  in 1257 decided to marry the daughter of Badr ad-Din Lo'alo'a the Ayyubid emir of al- Mousil .  Badr ad-Din Aybak Lo'alo'a Shajar warned that al- Durr was in contact with an -Nasir Yusuf in Damascus.  Shajar al- Durr , feeling in danger Aybak and betrayed by the man who made ​​a Sultan , he was assassinated by officers while taking a bath.
 he had ruled Egypt for seven years. Shajar al- Durr said that Aybak died suddenly during the night but the Mamluks ( Mu'iziyya ), led by Qutuz , did not believe her .
 and the officers confessed under torture. Shajar al- Durr and officials were arrested and the Mamluks of Aybak ( the Mamluks Mu'iziyya ) wanted to kill her, but the Mamluks Salihyya his protégé and was taken to the Red Tower, where she remained .
 The son of Aybak 15- year-old al- Mansur Ali was installed by the Mamluks Mu'ziyyah the new sultan.
 Shajar al- Durr was stripped and beaten to death with wooden shoes by the servants of al- Mansur Ali and his mother. Her naked body was found lying outside the Citadel The officials who were involved in the murder of Aybak were executed.
Shajar al- Durr was buried in a tomb near the Tulun Mosque.

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