Monday, October 21, 2013

Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt between right and wrong

Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt may be facing the most serious crisis in its history of 85 years .
The movement is the oldest and largest Islamist organization in the country , meaning that its ideology is based on the teachings of the Koran.
Founded by Hassan al- Banna , the Muslim Brotherhood - or al- Ikhwan al- Muslimun Arabic - has influenced Islamist movements around
the world with its model of political activism combined with Islamic charity work .
The movement was originally intended to spread Islamic morals and good works, but soon became involved in politics , including the fight to rid Egypt of British colonial control and cleanse any Western influence.

While the Ikhwan say that they support democratic principles, one of the stated goals of the group is to create a state governed by Islamic law , or sharia state. His most famous slogan, used worldwide , is : " Islam is the solution ."

After Banna launched the Muslim Brotherhood in 1928 , branches were established throughout the country - the management of a mosque , a school and a sports club everyone - and its membership grew rapidly.

Hassan al- Banna was assassinated in 1948 by an unknown In the late 1940s, the group felt that it had 500,000 members in Egypt, and his ideas spread throughout the Arab world.

At the same time , Banna created a paramilitary wing , the special device , including cooperatives joined the fight against the British rule and engaged in a campaign of bombings and assassinations .

The Egyptian government dissolved the group at the end of 1948 for attacking British and Jewish interests . Shortly after , the group was accused of murdering Prime Minister Mahmoud al- Nuqrashi .

Banna denounced the murder, but he was then shot by an unknown gunman - believed to have been a member of the security forces .

In 1952, the colonial rule ended after a military coup led by a group of young officers calling themselves the Free Officers .

The Ikhwan played a supporting role - Anwar al -Sadat , who became president of Egypt in 1970 , was once the link between the Free Officers with them - first worked with the new government, but relations soon soured .

After a failed attempt to assassinate President Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1954, the Ikhwan were blamed , banned and thousands of members imprisoned and tortured . However, the group continued to grow underground .

This confrontation with the authorities prompted a significant change in the ideology of the Ikhwan , evident in the writing of a prominent member , Sayyid Qutb .

The work of Qutb advocated the use of jihad ( struggle ) against Jahili ( ignorant ), both Western and Islamic societies those who said , according to him had need of a radical transformation.

His writings - including the 1964 work Milestones - inspired the founding of several radical Islamic groups , including Islamic Jihad and Al- Qaeda.

In 1965, the government again cracked down on the Ikhwan , the execution of Qutb in 1966 and turn it into a martyr for many people in the region.

During the 1980s , the Ikhwan attempted to join the political mainstream .
Successive leaders have formed alliances with the Wafd Party in 1984, and the Socialist Labour Party and the Liberal Socialist Party in 1987 , becoming the main opposition force in Egypt. In 2000, the Ikhwan won 17 seats in the lower house of parliament , the People's Assembly .

Five years later , the group achieved its best result of the election so far, with independent candidates allied to it won 20% of seats.

The result shocked President Hosni Mubarak. The government then launched a crackdown on the Ikhwan , arresting hundreds of members, and established a number of "reforms" to counter their legal resurgence .

The constitution was rewritten to clarify that "political activity or political parties can not be based on any background or religious " foundation , independent candidates were barred from running for president and anti- terrorism legislation that gave the security forces sweeping powers to detain suspects and restrict public gatherings was introduced.

In early 2011 , anti -government protests , apparently encouraged by the Tunisian street protests that led to the sudden departure of President Ben Ali of Tunisia, started across the country .

Although many members of the Ikhwan have joined the protests , they have maintained a low profile. Traditional slogans of the group have not been seen in Tahrir Square in Cairo.

But as the protests grew and the government began to offer concessions , including a promise Mubarak not to seek re-election in September 2011, the largest opposition force in Egypt has played a more said.

rise In the first elections after the fall of Mubarak in February 2011, the Ikhwan newly formed Freedom and Justice ( FJP ) won nearly half the seats in the People's Assembly , eclipsing the previous performance independent allies movement.

The ultra-conservative Salafist Nour party finished second , which means that the Islamists controlled 70 % of the seats in the lower house . There were similar from the elections for the upper chamber, the Shura Council statement.

This allowed the Ikhwan and its allies to control the selection of candidates for the 100-member constituent assembly to draft a new constitution for Egypt , sparking criticism from liberals, secular , Coptic Christians , young and women, who have complained that the panel does not reflect the diversity of Egyptian society The fear that the Ikhwan could be seeking to monopolize power were exacerbated when they announced they would have a candidate in the presidential election , although he has already promised that they would not do .

In 2012, then president of the FJP , Mohammed Morsi , who became the first democratically elected president of Egypt . He won 51 % of the vote in a run-off deep bias against retired Air Force commander Ahmed Shafiq.
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